Main facts about Belarus

Official Name:
Republic of Belarus |  Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)


Date of Formation:
March 1990, elections for seats in the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR took place. Though the opposition candidates, mostly associated with the pro-independence Belarusian Popular Front, took only 10% of the seats.[86] Belarus declared itself sovereign on 27 July 1990 by issuing the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic.[

The Flag:

Flag of Belarus.svgThe national flag of Belarus is a red-and-green flag with a white-and-red ornament pattern placed at the hoist (staff) end. The current design was introduced in 2012 by the State Committee for Standardisation of the Republic of Belarus, and is adapted from a design approved in a May 1995 referendum. It is a modification of the 1951 flag used while the country was a republic of the Soviet Union. Changes made to the Soviet-era flag were the removal of communist symbols – the hammer and sickle and the red star – as well as the reversal of the colours in the ornament pattern. Since the 1995 referendum, several flags used by Belarusian government officials and agencies have been modelled on this national flag.

Coat of arms of Belarus (2020).svgThe Coat of Arms:
The national emblem of Belarus features a ribbon in the colors of the national flag, a map of Belarus, wheatears and a red star. It is sometimes referred to as the coat of arms of Belarus, although in heraldic terms this is inaccurate as the emblem does not respect the rules of conventional heraldry. The emblem is an allusion to one that was used by the Byelorussian SSR, designed by Ivan Dubasov in 1950, with the biggest change being a replacement of the Communist hammer and sickle with an outline map of Belarus.

The Belarusian name is Dziaržaŭny herb Respubliki Biełaruś (Дзяржаўны герб Рэспублікі Беларусь), and the name in Russian is Gosudarstvennyĭ gerb Respubliki Belarusʹ (Государственный герб Республики Беларусь). Between 1991 and 1995, Belarus used a coat of arms, known as the Pahonia as its national emblem. The Pahonia was originally a symbol of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, of which Belarus had historically been a part.

The Anthem:
Belarusian: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь), better known as "My Belarusy" (Мы, беларусы; "We Belarusians"), is the national anthem of Belarus. It was originally written in the 1940s and adopted in 1955 for use in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.

The music of the Byelorussian SSR's regional anthem was composed by Niescier Sakałoŭski and the lyrics were written by Michas Klimkovič. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the music composed by Sakalowski was kept and the lyrics were discarded. New lyrics, which were written by Klimkovič and Uladzimir Karyzna, were adopted by a presidential decree issued on 2 July 2002. The lyrics now speak of a friendly Belarus, honoring past military battles and looking forward to the future.

State Organization:
There are three tiers of local government. The largest consists of six voblastsi (provinces) and one municipality (horad), Minsk. The provinces in turn are divided into rayony (sectors) and cities, with some larger cities further divided into rayony. Towns, villages, and settlements constitute the final tier.

The Constitution:
The Constitution of Belarus was adopted on 15 March 1994 by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus. It is the first Constitution in the history of sovereign Belarus and the fifth Constitution of Belarus in succession (after the October Revolution of 1917). In 1996, a national referendum on the revised Constitution took place.

In 2004, following the results of another national referendum, the Constitution was amended.

The Republic of Belarus is a unitary democratic welfare and rule-of-law state. The Republic of Belarus exercises supreme control and absolute authority over its territory and implements its domestic and foreign policies in an independent manner. The human being, his/her rights and freedoms and their guaranteed implementation are of the highest importance and the supreme goal of society and the State. The democratic foundations of the Belarusian statehood guarantee diversity of political institutions, ideologies and views.

The Republic of Belarus is guided by the principle of the rule of law. The state, all of its public authorities and officials act within the limits of the Constitution and the legislative acts adopted in accordance with it. Belarus is a presidential republic. The Head of State is the President of the Republic of Belarus.

Read more about the general information about Belarus HERE

The mass media in Belarus are mass-media outlets based in Belarus. Television, magazines, and newspapers are operated by state-owned and for-profit corporations and depend on advertising, subscriptions, and other sales-related revenue. The Constitution of Belarus guarantees freedom of speech, but this is contradicted in practice by repressive and restrictive laws. Arbitrary detention, arrests, and harassment of journalists are frequent in Belarus.

Anti-extremism legislation targets independent journalism, including material considered unfavorable to the president.

Read more about the Media and Censorship in Belarus HERE

  • Palace of the Republic in MinskPalace of the Republic in Minsk
  • Minsk downtownMinsk downtown
  • Orthodox Church in BrestOrthodox Church in Brest
  • Minsk Train StationMinsk Train Station
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