Glossary Training & Youth in Europe

Let us explain to you some of the terms used in European youth work. That way we all know what we are talking about.

[ Training Terminology | Youth in Action Programme Jargon | European Institutions and Structures ]

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>Training Terminology (mainly Youth in Action programme related-YiA)

  • Bi-Tri-Multi Training Course (Bilateral-Trilateral-Multilateral): this is a beginners training course for "youth workers" (people working with youth in whatever capacity) interested in European Youth Exchanges (Action 1.1 of the YiA programme). The Bi-Tri-Multi (BTM) simulates the different steps in setting up a youth exchange. It is organised by a group of National Agencies (so only participants from these countries can apply) and run by a group of experienced trainers.
  • GeT in NET Training Course (Get In networking projects): thanks to non formal education, this Training Course gives the skills to manage international youth projects within the framework of sub action 1.2 (Transnational Youth Initiatives) of the Youth in Action programme. The course objective is to develop high quality Networking projects.
  • SOHO Training Course (Sending Organisation Hosting Organisation): this is a training course for staff (volunteer, paid, etc.) of an organisation or structure interested in sending or hosting one or more volunteers within the framework of the European Voluntary Service (Action 2 of the YiA programme).
  • TicTac Training Course: this is a training course based on simulation games, inputs, and group work. The training supports mainly youth workers and leaders to develop Support Measures within the context of YiA Action 4.3.
  • TC (Training Course): a training course is a non-formal learning activity of minimum 5 working days (according to Action 5 of the YOUTH programme) and focusses on different skills (intercultural, organisational, project management, communication, etc.) of the youth workers in order to improve the quality of the international projects. The working methods used during training courses are interactive (use of simulation, exercises, group work, ...) and build on the participant's own experiences.
  • Seminar: brings together participants in an international group around a topic and provides a platform for discussion and to exchange good practices. The main differences to a training course are the shorter duration (less than 5 working days) and sometimes a more theoretical approach (less learning by doing). But in some cases it can be argued, whether a specific activity is a seminar or training course.
  • Study Visit (formerly called SSV: Short Study Visit): these are learning opportunities to discover youth work and policy in different countries. They focus on a specific topic (related to the YiA programme priorities) and will provide the occasion to meet different (youth) organisations in the field of this topic, to exchange good practices and to set up networks or projects in the future.
  • Partnership-Building Activity (PBS) or Contact Making Seminar (CMS): they bring together representatives of different organisations or groups and provide opportunites to find partners to set up future Youth in Action projects. At the same time information sessions about the YiA programme and workshops on necessary skills for international projects are conducted, but the training element is limited.
  • ToT (Training of Trainers): this long-term training course has been organised several times and aims to give resource persons the skills and experience to be a trainer within the YiA programme and its Actions. The ToT involves three training courses (introduction, skills training and evaluation) with practice periods (setting up and running own training courses) inbetween. Recruitment is done via the YOUTH National Agencies and successful participants can be entrusted by the NA with their (inter)national training activities
  • ToM (Training of Multipliers): several Programme countries of the YiA programme have a network of decentralised resource persons assisting the National Agencies at giving information and counselling to youth workers setting up European YiA projects. Check with your YOUTH National Agency, if there is one for your country
  • Appetiser: This seminar brings together youth workers from all over Europe and gives them a taste of working in an international setting (like an 'appetiser'). The idea of the seminar is to give participants a feeling of what it means to work with young people in an international setting, by exploring the advantage of 'internationality' themselves.
    European Citizenship Training Courses
    : these courses aim to support the professional development of youth workers and youth leaders, by extending their understanding of European Citizenship and encourage them to integrate elements of European Citizenship in their daily youth projects and practice.
  • For a list of these courses, seminars and activities: have a look at the European Training Calendar

Youth Partnership

  • The Youth Partnership is a cooperation agreement between the Council of Europe and the European Commission in the field of youth. It regroups the former 'Partnership for Youth & Training', the 'Euromed Partnership' and the 'Youth Research Partnership'. Its secretariat is based in Strasbourg. More info at
  • ATTE (Advanced Training for Trainers in Europe): this is an experimental long-term training for trainers course developed in the previous Partnership for Training and Youth which aims to qualify European trainers in the youth field. The course is directed at people already active as trainers in different capacities who want to specialise in European youth training. More info at (under training courses)
  • T-Kits: this is a series of training kits or manuals for European youth work and training published within the framwork of the Partnership of Training and Youth. Existing T-Kits cover Project Managament, Organisational Management, Intercultural Learning, Intercultural Language Learning, International Voluntary Service, Training Essentials, Social Inclusion, European Citizenship, Educational Evaluation (and more to come). The T-Kits are available to download (pdf format) for free in different languages at (under publications)
  • Coyote: this is a half-yearly magazine targeted at European youth workers and trainers with background reading on priority topics, interviews with trainers, reviews of training methodologies, etc. Regularly, Coyote also publishes a 'supplement' being a new training tool or simulation exercise. To subscribe to Coyote register online on the Youth-Partnership website at You can also read it online at (under publications).
  • European Knowledge Centre for Youth Policy (EKCYP): this is an online platform which collects and gives access to knowledge and information on the realities of youth across Europe (put in by youth researchers and experts), It aims to promote evidence based policy making. You can access it via the same
    Euro-Mediterranean youth cooperation: Within the Euro-Mediterranean youth cooperation, the partnership organises regularly training activities on Human Rights Education and Citizenship. Intercultural dialogue activities comprise specific semainars and youth meeetings. This work is complemented by activities in the region aimed at stimulating youth policy cooperation, notably in the areas of youth research and youth participation. More info at
  • Youth Research cooperation. In Youth research, the Partnership organises thematic research seminars and workshop picking up the priority areas of youth policy and supports the development of the Masters Degree in European Youth Studies. More info at

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>Youth in Action Programme Jargon

NOTE: you can find all 'official' information in the Youth in Action Programme Guide which you can download from or request from your National Agency (find their contacts at

  • YOUTH programme? this was the European mobility programme from 2000-2006. It was replaced with the Youth in Action programme from 2007-2013. More at
  • Youth in Action programme: this is the programme of the European Commission providing international mobility opportunities for young people in a non-formal educational setting. It is managed by decentralised National Agencies in all Programme countries. It is composed of 5 Actions for different activities. More at
  • Action 1 - Youth for Europe: supporting Youth Exchanges (action 1.1) and Youth Initiatives (action 1.2) and encouraging young people's participation in democratic life (youth democracy projects=action 1.3); There is also the possibility to combine different action 1 projects in one application = Multi-Measure Projects
  • Action 2 - European Voluntary Service (EVS): encouraging young people to take part in a voluntary activity abroad that benefits the general public (2-12 months); For young people with fewer opportunities there is also the possibility to do 'Short-Term EVS' (ST-EVS) = less than 2 months
  • Action 3 - Youth in the World: encouraging cooperation with Partner Countries by building networks, promoting the exchange of information and assisting with cross-border activities (neighbouring regions= action 3.1, other countries=action 3.2); the type of projects possible are Youth Exchanges (see Action 1.1) and Training & Networking projects (Action 4.3)
  • Action 4 - Youth Support Systems: promoting the development of exchange, training and information schemes (this action also includes funding for structures and recurring projects of the YiA programme); Action 4.3 is the budget line for Training & Networking projects for those active in youth work and youth organisations - these projects can be Job Shadowing, Feasibility Visits, Evaluation Meetings, Study Visits, Partnership-Building Activity, Seminars, Training Courses and Networking.
  • Action 5 - European Cooperation in the youth field contributing to the development of policy cooperation in the youth field.
  • Programme countries: EU Member States, EFTA/EEA countries and Pre-accession countries (only Turkey at the moment). They can participate fully in all YOUTH Actions.
  • (EU) Member States: the 27 countries, that are members of the European Union - this number can expand in the future with the accession of new member states (e.g. Turkey, Croatia, ...).
  • Pre-accession (or candidate) countries: these are the countries that applied for membership to the European Union (e.g. Turkey) and are on the way to 'accession' to the EU. These countries participate fully in all YiA Actions. In 2004 many of the 'pre'-accession countries joined the EU and became member states. In the (near future) other countries could also become Pre-Accession and Programme Countries (e.g. Croatia, FYRO Macedonia,...)
  • EFTA/EEA countries: the three countries, which are members of the European Free Trade Association and of the European Economic Area (Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein).
  • Partner countries/neighbouring Regions: neither Member States of the European Union, nor Pre-accession countries, nor members of EFTA/EEA. There are 3 neighbouring regions: EECA = Eastern Europea & Caucasus (see; SEE = South East Europe (sometimes also called southern Balkans - see; EuroMed = around the Mediterranean Sea (see They can participate in YOUTH projects under Action 3 (Youth of the World) and Action 2 (EVS) in the Youth in Action programme - subject to specific criteria and procedures. 
  • Mediterranean partner countries: These are the 12 non-EU countries at or near the Mediterranean Sea, that can participate in the Youth in Action Programme. More about this here.
  • CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States (the former countries of the Soviet Union) - Now called within the YiA programme context EECA - Eastern Europe & Caucasus, to refer specifically to the 7 countries from East Europe and the Caucasus region, belonging to the priority area of the YiA programme. More here.
  • National Agencies: structures established by the national authorities in each Programme country in order to assist the European Commission in management and to assume responsibility for implementation of most of the YiA programme. 
  • National Euromed Youth Units:  units/offices appointed by the national authorities in each Euro-Med partner country which run the EuroMed Youth Programme - similar to YiA, but an independent programme (and budget) covering Meda countries and Member States of the EU.
  • Non-formal education (NFE)/Non Formal Learning (NFL): projects within Youth in Action actively involve young people on a voluntary basis and provide them with opportunities to acquire skills and competences outside formal education and training systems. Even though they are not part of any formal educational curriculum, Youth in Action projects are characterised by a carefully planned programme of personal and social education for participants and apply methods of intercultural learning.
  • Young people with fewer opportunities: young people from a less privileged cultural, geographical or socio-economic background, or with disabilities; better access for them to the activities developed within the Youth in Action programme is a key priority for the European Commission. More info here
  • Community funding: financial contribution from the YiA programme awarded to selected projects
  • Youthpass certificate - the recognition tool. Every participant in a Youth Exchange, a European Voluntary Service, or a Training and Networking project is entitled to receive Youthpass, which describes and validates their non-formal learning experience. Through Youthpass the European Commission ensures that the experience gained within the programme is recognised as having been educational and as a period of non-formal and informal learning. Further information here.

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>European Institutions and Structures

  • EU - European Union: supra-national European institution composed of 27 member states (from Jan 2007) with headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, working on a variety of issues: the most known are probably the Euro (monetary union), agriculture, exchange programmes, ... and youth. The European Parliament (with offices in Brussels and monthly meetings in Strasbourg, France) is elected directly by citizens of the member countries and undertakes legislative work. The European Commission (based in Brussels) is the executive organ of the EU implementing and monitoring the treaties and decisions of the EU. The European Council is a meeting of the heads of state or government to discuss and plan EU policy. More at
  • CoE - Council of Europe: inter-governmental European institution composed of 47 member states (2008) with seat in Strasbourg, France, working in fields such as Human Rights, Democracy, ... and youth. The Council of Europe's deliberative body is the Parliamentary Assembly composed of representatives of the parliaments of their member states. The Committee of Ministers is the Council of Europe's decision making body composed of foreign ministers (or their substitutes) of the member countries. More at
  • SALTO-YOUTH (Support, Advanced Learning, and Training Opportunities within the YOUTH programme): was created by the European Commission to support the quality of the YiA programme projects. The international operational network of 8 SALTOs made it easier to tackle European priorities. More at
  • Youth Partnership: since both the Council of Europe and the European Union had programmes focussing on youth work, they joined forces in setting up training courses on Citizenship Education and they jointly developed the Advanced Training for Trainers in Europe (see above). Besides these courses they also publish T-Kits (Training Kits or Manuals) on different European youth work topics and Coyote, a magazine about European training and youth work. The Youth Partnership now also englobes the 'Youth Research' and 'EuroMed' partnership agreements between the 2 institutions (which were seperate covenants before). More at
  • European Youth Forum: The European Youth Forum works to empower young people to participate actively in the shaping of Europe and the societies in which they live, and in improving the living conditions of young people as European citizens in today's world. The European Youth Forum defends the interests of all young people in Europe. As a platform, it is the representative body of its member organisations (international youth NGOs and National Youth Councils) towards institutions and partners active in the youth field.

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Or have a look at the Youth Partnership's glossary or the European Commission's Youth pages

  • Council of EuropeCouncil of Europe
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